Earnings Before Interest & Taxes
Earnings Before Interest & Taxes
Operating income, also referred to as operating profit or Earnings Before Interest & Taxes (EBIT), is the amount of revenue left after deducting the operational direct and indirect costs from sales revenue. This can also be computed using gross income less depreciation, amortization and operating expenses not directly attributable to the production of goods. Interest expense, interest income, and other non-operational revenue sources are not considered in computing for operating income.
Below is an example of income from operations highlighted on Amazon.com Inc.’s 2016 income statement.
There are three formulas to calculate income from operations:
1. Operating income = Total Revenue – Direct Costs – Indirect Costs
2. Operating income = Gross Profit – Operating expenses – Depreciation – Amortization
3. Operating income = Net Earnings + Interest Expense + Taxes
D Trump footwear company earned total sales revenues of $25M for the second quarter of the current year. For that period, cost of raw materials and supplies used for the sold products was $9M, labor costs directly applied were $2M, administrative and staff salaries totaled $4M, and there were depreciation and amortizations of $1M. As a result, the income before taxes derived from operations gave a total amount of $9M in profits.
Sales revenue or net sales is the monetary amount obtained from selling goods and services to business customers, excluding merchandise returned and any allowances/discounts offered to customers. This can be realized either as cash sales or credit sales.
Gross income, on the other hand, is the monetary result obtained after deducting the cost of goods sold and sales returns/allowances from total sales revenue.
Direct costs are expenses incurred and attributed to creating or purchasing a product, or in offering services. Often regarded as the cost of goods sold or cost of sales, these expenses are specifically related to the cost of producing goods or services. These costs do not need to be fixed in nature. They can be variable, such as depending on the quantity being produced and utilized.
Examples of directs costs are:
Indirect costs are operating expenses that are not directly associated with manufacturing or purchasing a product. These costs are frequently accumulated into a fixed or overhead cost and allocated to various operational activities.
Examples of indirect costs are:
Examples of selling and administrative indirect costs are:
Another way to calculate income from operations is to start at the bottom of the income statement at Net Earnings and then add back interest expense and taxes. This is a common method used by analysts to calculate EBIT, which can then be used for valuation in the EV/EBIT ratio.
Below is an example calculation of EBIT:
Learn more about EBIT and EBITDA.
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Operating income is considered a critical indicator of how efficiently a business is operating. It is an indirect measure of productivity and a company’s ability to generate more earnings, which can then be used to further expand the business. Investors closely monitor operating profit in order to assess the trend of a company’s efficiency over a period of time. Operating profit, like gross profit and net profit, is a key financial metric used in determining the worth of the company for a potential buyout. The higher the operating profit as time goes by, the more effectively a company’s core business is being carried out.
We hope this has been a helpful guide to operating income. CFI is the official global provider of the Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)™ certification, designed to transform anyone into a world-class financial analyst.
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