What is a Value Trap?
A value trap occurs when an investor looks at the fundamentals and market price of a stock, and it appears the stock is valued at a discount (cheap to own), but it ends up not being the case. The illusion causes the investor to think that they will be able to invest in the stock and beat the market but will, in fact, provide either a negative or lackluster return.
The stocks are not as cheap as they appear and present a money trap with little hope of growth. There are many different reasons that it can occur, and we will attempt to list some within this article in order to better contextualize the concept.
Am I Falling into the Value Trap?
1. The income statement is misleading regarding cash flow
It is possible for a cash flow statement to be misleading. A cash flow statement does not give insight into qualitative or systemic issues that can present a large exposure to risk for the stock. If a company were to fund long-term liabilities with current assets, as some investment banks did prior to the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, it could leave the company open to collapse even though the income statement appears healthy.
2. Peak earnings
Certain industries are cyclical. Without conducting due diligence with regard to the industry a certain company operates in, it is possible for the fundamentals of a company to be sound. However, they are, in fact, approaching a time in the cycle of their business where sales and performance are expected to drop off cyclically. One example can be a retailer outside of the holiday season.
3. Market share
If a business keeps losing market share to its competitors or is growing at a much slower pace, the income statement and fundamentals may be sound. However, the company’s long-term prospects are worrisome and can potentially become a risky investment.
4. Capital spending
If a company is not being agile in how it is spending its cash, it can end up being a poor investment and a value trap. If a company continues to invest in the same type of projects or compete in the market as if conditions will be the same today as they will be in the next five years, then a company with strong cash flow and fundamentals can, in fact, be a value trap.
Being agile and able to pivot, introducing a new type of product, or acquiring a company that can present a new opportunity is a crucial strategic priority a company needs in order to remain viable in the long term.
Poor overall strategic leadership or direction at a company can lead to another potential value trap. Looking at the company’s key indicators will not reflect a poor five- or ten-year strategy that can leave it vulnerable even in the short to medium term if a competitor is able to introduce a strategy that the market finds more appealing.
6. Stakeholder analysis
Outside stakeholders exert a strong influence on a company’s prospects of being successful. For example, if the stock is in an industry where there is potential incoming legislation as part of an American election campaign or the workforce is heavily unionized, the external stakeholders can affect a company in a way that will not be reflected in the analysis of fundamentals.
7. Managerial compensation structure
If leadership awards themselves large payouts regardless of stock performance or market conditions, it can signify a company is a value trap. It can be indicative of a potential disconnect between the leadership and the market, or they are perhaps not as vested in the company’s long-term success.
Due Diligence and the Investor: Avoiding the Trap
Conducting your due diligence is a way to help prevent an investor from falling into the value trap. One type of analysis that can help them identify external forces is a PESTEL analysis. By analyzing the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal macroeconomic forces, an investor can better equip themselves to determine if they are indeed getting a deal on a stock or falling into a value trap.
CFI offers the Certified Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™ certification program for those looking to take their careers to the next level. To keep learning and developing your knowledge base, please explore the additional relevant resources below: