Investor Influence

The amount of control an investor exerts over its invested companies

What is the significance of investor influence?

The level of investor influence a company holds in an investment transaction determines the method of accounting for said private investment. The accounting for this investment varies with the level of control the investor possesses.

Investor Influence

 

What are the varying levels of control?

An investor can hold a majority ownership or minority interest in a company it owns or has invested in. If it holds a minority ownership, this control can be further divided into two levels, where the investor either has minority active or minority passive control.

 

#1 Majority ownership

Majority ownership exists when a company holds more than 50% of a company’s shares. This gives the investor effective control of the company. Investments in this company are then accounted for using the consolidation method. Note that having exactly 50% of a company’s shares does not necessarily mean effective control for an investor, as another company holding the other 50% would result in a split.

 

#2 Minority – active

Minority active ownership exists when the investor holds 20-50% of the investee’s shares. This gives the investor the ability to influence management decisions, but not to control it entirely. Investments in this company are accounted for using the equity method.

 

#3 Minority – passive

Finally, minority passive ownerships exist when the investor holds less than 20% of the investee’s shares. This gives the owner no significant influence over the company. Investments in this company are accounted for using the cost method or the market method, and may be classified as public or marketable securities.

 

Ownership guidelines

It is important to note that the classifications above are simply guidelines to classify the degree of influence an investor possesses over the investee.

In reality, there may be such circumstances where these guidelines don’t apply. For example, if an investor owns less than 20% of a company but holds significant influence in it, then it may use the equity method to account for its investments in said company.

In another example, if an investor owns a 51% share in a company, but does not exercise effective control over it, it may not use the consolidation method to account for its investments.

 

Additional resources