Macroeconomic Factor

A phenomenon, pattern, or condition that emanates from, or relates to, a large aspect of an economy

What is a Macroeconomic Factor?

A macroeconomic factor is a pattern, characteristic, or condition that emanates from, or relates to, a larger aspect of an economy rather than to a particular population. The characteristic may be a significant economic, environmental, or geopolitical event that widely influences a regional or national economy.


Macroeconomic Factor


A macroeconomic factor can include something that affects the course or direction of a given large-scale economy. Monetary policies and other regulations, for example, can affect national and state economies, while also coming with potentially great global consequences.

Inflation, gross domestic product (GDP), national income, and unemployment levels are examples of macroeconomic factors. Such economic performance metrics are closely tracked by states, companies, and consumers alike. The correlation between various macroeconomic factors is extensively researched in the field of macroeconomics.



  • A macroeconomic factor is a phenomenon, pattern, or condition that emanates from, or relates to, a large aspect of an economy rather than to a particular population.
  • Inflation, gross national product (GDP), national income, and unemployment levels are examples of macroeconomic factors.
  • Macroeconomic factors can be either positive, negative, or neutral.


Understanding Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics is a field of economics that studies broader economic trends, such as inflation, economic growth rates, price levels, gross domestic product (GDP), national income, and changes in levels of unemployment.



Inflation is a progressive increase in the average cost of goods and services in the economy over time.


Economic Growth Rate

The economic growth rate is the percent change in the cost of the output of goods and services in a country across a specific period of time, relative to a previous period.


Price Level

A price level is the variation of existing prices for economically produced goods and services. In broader terms, the level of prices refers to the costs of a good, service, or security.


Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantitative measure of the market value of all finished goods and services produced over a given time period.


National Income

National income is the aggregate amount of money generated within a nation.


Unemployment Level

The level or rate of unemployment is the unemployed share of the labor force in a given country, calculated and stated as a percentage.


Types of Macroeconomic Factors


Macroeconomic Factor - Types


1. Positive

Positive macroeconomic factors comprise of events that ultimately stimulate economic stability and expansion within a country or a group of countries.

Any development leading to a rise in demand for goods or services (e.g., a decrease in price) is considered a positive macroeconomic factor. As the demand for products and services grows, domestic and foreign suppliers of the products will inevitably benefit from increased revenues resulting from increased customer traffic. Higher profits will, in effect, grow stock prices on a larger scale.


2. Negative

Negative macroeconomic factors include events that may threaten the national or global economy.

Concerns of political uncertainty induced by the involvement of a nation in civil or global conflict are likely to worsen economic unrest due to the redistribution of resources or damage to property, assets, and livelihoods.

Negative macroeconomic factors also include global pandemics (e.g., Covid-19) or natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, flooding, wildfires, etc.


3. Neutral

Some economic changes are neither positive nor negative. Instead, the exact consequences are assessed based on the purpose of the action, such as the control of trade across regional or national borders.

The nature of a particular action, such as the implementation or discontinuance of a trade embargo, would come with a variety of consequences that are dependent on the country being impacted and the objectives behind the action taken.


Importance of Macroeconomic Factors

Economic experts and researchers frequently refer to macroeconomic factor trends as they try to find ways to clarify economic policy objectives and strive to achieve economic prosperity. They also attempt to forecast future rates of employment, inflation, and other main macroeconomic factors. Such forecasts affect the decisions taken by states, individuals, and businesses.


More Resources

CFI offers the Certified Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™ certification program for those looking to take their careers to the next level. To keep learning and advancing your career, the following resources will be helpful:

  • Economic Indicators
  • Monetary Policy
  • Nominal GDP vs. Real GDP
  • Structural Unemployment

Financial Analyst Certification

Become a certified Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)® by completing CFI’s online financial modeling classes!