Enrollment for the FMVA™ Certification Program is now OPEN!

Financial Math Glossary

Important mathematical terms to know

Financial Math Glossary

This financial math glossary covers the most important terms and definitions required for a career as a financial analyst.  This list is taken from CFI’s Financial Mathematics Course.

 

financial math glossary

 

Annuity

An annuity is a series of payments in equal time periods, guaranteed for a fixed number of years.

 

Annuity factor

The present value of $1 paid for each of t periods.

 

Arithmetic mean

An average calculated by adding the value of the points in a data set and dividing the sum by the number of data points.

 

Constant Perpetuity

A constant stream of identical cash flows without end.

 

Correlation

A statistical measure of how two securities move in relation to each other.

 

Coupon Rate

Coupon Rate is the amount of interest received by a bond investor expressed on a nominal annual basis.

 

Covariance

A statistical measure of the variance of two random variables that are observed or measured in the same mean time period.

 

Current Yield

The coupon from a bond divided by the market price of the bond, expressed as a percentage.

 

Discount Factor

The percentage rate required to calculate the present value of a future cash flow.

 

Growing Perpetuity

A constant stream of cash flows without end that is expected to rise indefinitely.

 

Moving Average

Mean of time series data (observations equally spaced in time) from several consecutive periods. Called ‘moving’ because it is continually recomputed as new data becomes available.

 

Par Value

Par Value is the amount returned to the bond investor by the issuer upon maturity.

 

R-Squared

R-Squared is a statistical term saying how good one term is at predicting another. Generally, a higher value of R-Squared means that you can better predict one term from another.

 

Regression Analysis

A statistical methodology that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between one dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variables (known as independent variables).

 

Standard Deviation

A measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean. The more spread apart the data, the higher the deviation. Standard deviation is calculated as the square root of variance.

 

Sum of Squares

The Sum of Squares Regression (SSR) measures how much variation there is in the modelled values and this is compared to the Total Sum of Squares (SST), which measures how much variation there is in observed data, and to the Sum of Squares Residual (SSE), which measures the variation in the modelling errors.

 

Time Value of Money

The concept holds that a specific sum of money is more valuable the sooner it is received. Time value of money is dependent not only on the time interval being considered but also the rate of discount used in calculating current or future values.

 

Variance

Variance is a measure of the dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. It is a mathematical expectation of the average squared deviations from the mean.

 

Weighted Average

An average in which some values count for more than others.

 

Yield to Maturity

The annual return earned by a bond investor if purchasing a bond today and holding it until maturity.

 

More financial mathematics resources

This financial math glossary covered important terms and definitions for performing financial analysis.  Now you’re ready to take CFI’s Financial Mathematics Course. To continue learning and advancing your career, these resources will also be helpful:

Financial Analyst Training

Get world-class financial training with CFI's online certified financial analyst training program! Gain the confidence you need to move up the ladder in a high powered corporate finance career path.  

Learn financial modeling and valuation in Excel the easy way, with step-by-step training.