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Cost Structure

The different types of expenses incurred by a business

What is Cost Structure?

Cost structure refers to the various types of expenses a business incurs, and it is typically composed of fixed and variable costs.  Fixed costs are costs that remain unchanged regardless of the amount of output a company produces, while variable costs change with production volume.

Operating a business must incur some kind of costs, whether it is a retail business or service provider.  Cost structures differ between retailers and service providers, thus the expense accounts appearing on a financial statement depend on the cost objects, such as a product, service, project, customer, or business activity.  Even within a company, cost structure may vary between product lines, divisions or business units, due to the distinct types of activities they perform.


Diagram of cost structure


Fixed Costs

Fixed costs are incurred regularly and unlikely to fluctuate over time.  Examples of fixed costs are overhead costs such as rent, interest expenses, property taxes and depreciation of fixed assets.  One special example of fixed cost is direct labor cost. While direct labor cost tends to vary in the number of hours an employee works, it still tends to be relatively stable and can be counted as fixed costs if a worker’s annual salary is not conditional on the number of work hours.


Variable Costs

Variable costs are expenses that vary with production output. Examples of variable costs include direct labor costs, direct material cost, utilities, bonuses and commissions, and marketing expenses. Variable costs tend to be more diverse than fixed costs.  For businesses selling products, the variable cost might include direct materials, commissions, and piece rate wages.  For service providers, variable expenses are composed of wages, bonuses and travel costs.  For project-based businesses, costs such as wages and other project expenses are dependent on the number of hours invested in each of the projects.


Cost Allocation

Cost allocation is the process of identifying costs incurred, accumulating and assigning them to the right cost objects (e.g., product lines, service lines, projects, departments, business units, customers) on some measurable basis.  Cost allocation is used to distribute costs among different cost objects in order to calculate the profitability of, for example, different product lines.


Cost Pool

A cost pool is a grouping of individual costs, from which cost allocations are made later.  Overhead cost, maintenance cost, and other fixed costs are typical examples of cost pools.  A company usually uses a single cost allocation basis, such as labor hours or machine hours, to allocate costs from cost pools to destined cost objects.


Example of Cost Allocation

A company with a cost pool of manufacturing overhead uses direct labor hours as its cost allocation basis.  The company would first accumulate its overhead expenses over a period, say for a year, then divide the total overhead cost by the total number of labor hours to find out the overhead cost per labor hour (the allocation rate).  Finally, the company would multiple the hourly cost by the number of labor hours spent to manufacture a product to determine the overhead cost for that specific product line.


Cost Structure


The Importance of Cost Structures and Cost Allocation

To maximize profits, businesses must find every possible way to minimize costs.  While some fixed costs are vital to keeping the business running, a financial analyst should always review the financial statements to identify excessive expenses that do not provide any additional value to core business activities.

When an analyst understands the overall cost structure of a company, he/she can identify feasible cost reduction methods without affecting the quality of products sold or service provided to customers.  The financial analyst should also keep a close eye on the cost trend to ensure stable cash flows and no sudden cost spikes occurring.

Cost allocation is an important process for a business because if costs are misallocated, the business might make wrong decisions to overprice/underprice a product or invest unnecessary resources in non-profitable products.  The role of a financial analyst is to make sure costs are correctly distributed to the destined cost objects and appropriate cost allocation bases are chosen.

Cost allocation allows an analyst to calculate the per unit costs for different product lines, business units, or departments and thus, find out the per unit profits.  With this information, a financial analyst can provide insights on improving the profitability of certain products, replacing the least profitable products, or implementing various strategies to reduce costs.


CFI is a global provider of financial modeling courses and financial analyst certification. To continue developing your career as a financial professional, check out the following additional resources:


Other Resources

  • Cost Behavior Analysis
  • Marginal Cost Formula
  • Sunk Cost
  • Cost Method

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