5 P’s of Marketing

Product, Price, Promotion, Place and People

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What are the 5 P’s of Marketing?

The 5 P’s of Marketing – Product, Price, Promotion, Place, and People – are key marketing elements used to position a business strategically. The 5 P’s of Marketing, also known as the marketing mix, are variables that managers and owners control to satisfy customers in their target market, add value to their business, and help differentiate their business from competitors.

5 P's of Marketing Diagram


Product refers to the products and services offered by a business. Product decisions include function, packaging, appearance, warranty, quality, etc.

Customers need to understand the features, advantages, and benefits that can be enjoyed by buying goods or services. When thinking about a product, consider the key features, benefits, and the needs and wants of customers.


Price refers to the pricing strategy for products and services and how it will affect customers. Pricing decisions do not include just the selling price, but also discounts, payment arrangements, credit terms, and any price-matching services offered.

When determining a pricing strategy, it is important to consider the business’s position in the current marketplace. For example, if the business is advertised as a high-quality provider of mechanical equipment, the product pricing should reflect that.


Promotion refers to the activities that make the business more known to consumers. It includes items such as sponsorships, advertising, and public relations activities.

Since promotion costs can be substantial, it is essential to conduct a break-even analysis when making promotion decisions. It is important to understand the value of a customer and whether it is worth conducting promotions to acquire them.


Place refers to where the product/service of the business is seen, made, sold, or distributed. In essence, place decisions are associated with distribution channels and ways of getting the product to targeted key customers.

It is important to consider how accessible the product or service is and ensure that customers can easily find you. The product or service must be available to customers at the right time, at the right place, and in the right quantity.

For example, a business may want to provide their products over an e-commerce site, at a retail store, or through a third-party distributor.


People refer to the staff, salespeople, and those who work for the business. People decisions are usually centered around customer service – how do you want your employees to be perceived by customers?

Example of the 5 P’s of Marketing

John is considering operating a jet ski shop catering to travelers and tourists. To position his business, John may consult the 5 Ps of marketing in the following manner:

  • Product: By-the-hour jet ski rentals for people who are in the city for a short duration of time. A limited liability form to be signed by people who participate in the service and a monetary deposit in case of damages.
  • Price: Cheap jet ski trips to cater to the budget constraints of travelers and tourists. A 10% discount on jet ski trips when referred by a travel agency.
  • Promotions: A Facebook page, Instagram page, and a Twitter handle to promote the business. Also, paid promotions on travel agency websites.
  • Place: An easy to access location from existing transit systems.
  • People: Friendly staff members who love meeting travelers and offer exceptional customer service.

Related Readings

Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to the 5 P’s of marketing. To continue your development as a world-class financial analyst, these additional CFI resources will be helpful:

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