Homeowners Protection Act of 1998

A law that protects homeowners from unnecessary payment of private mortgage insurance that they no longer need to pay

Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more. Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets.

What is the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998?

The Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 is a law that establishes provisions for mandatory cancellation and termination of private insurance on residential mortgage loans under certain circumstances. The legislation, also known as the PMI Cancellation Act, protects borrowers who use their primary homes as collateral from paying unnecessary private mortgage insurance (PMI).

Homeowners Protection Act of 1998
Fig. 1: Legislative History of the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 (Source}

The Homeowners Protection Act took effect on July 29, 1999, and it addresses the challenges homeowners experience in paying private mortgage insurance. HPA particularly applies to all mortgage transactions consummated after July 29, 1999.

It also requires lenders to disclose certain information regarding the cancellation of private mortgage insurance. The law also requires private mortgage insurance to be terminated automatically when the borrower/homeowner attains the required level of equity.


  • The Homeowners Protection Act (HPA) is a law that protects homeowners from unnecessary payment of private mortgage insurance that they no longer need to pay.
  • The Homeowners Protection Act requires lenders to make certain disclosures to mortgage borrowers about private mortgage insurance.
  • The law protects homeowners who took private residential mortgages after July 29, 1999.

Understanding the Homeowners Protection Act

Most lenders demand a down payment for a portion of the home’s purchasing price, usually 20% in mortgage loan arrangements. The obligation ensures that the borrower does not lose financial interest and continues making periodic mortgage repayments.

Similarly, the upfront partial payment ensures that the lender is self-insured against foreclosure costs in the event of default. However, in some instances, the borrower may be unable to raise that amount, rendering the contract a risky investment.

As a result, private mortgage insurance (PMI) is required as a form of property-casualty insurance to offer double protection to the lender against unrecoverable losses on individual mortgage defaults.

High Loan-to-Value Ratio (LTV)

A common risk-spreading alternative by lenders that may force a homeowner to purchase private mortgage insurance (PMI) is when the home mortgage comes with a high loan-to-value ratio (LTV). LTV is a risk measure used for borrower’s and lender’s resilience.

Most borrowers seeking mortgage loans with LTVs exceeding 80% are considered to be at a high risk of default and must therefore purchase PMI. The insurance policy helps property owners not only to pay insurance premiums but also to purchase insurance coverage for their mortgage.

The premiums may either be merged with the monthly partial payments or be factored in when calculating the monthly interest rate. Once the borrower pays enough of the principal, usually 20%, or reaches an LTV ratio of 80%, the PMI may be removed.

Federal Regulation of PMI

Initially, homeowners encountered numerous problems in the cancellation of PMI. In some scenarios, lenders would refuse to cancel the PMI even when the risk covered by the insurance becomes insignificant. One explanation is that cancellation policies varied widely among lenders.

Thus, the Homeowners Protection Act’s principal concern was home mortgage loans with high LTVs at the time of origination and the homeowner’s obligation to pay for it when their equity reached 20%. The law seeks to reduce transaction costs for homeowners who mortgage their properties, either at the time of purchase or later. It sets uniform procedures that govern the cancellation of PMI coverage.

Conditions of the Application of the Homeowners Protection Act

For the Homeowners Protection Act to apply, a homeowner must use PMI to insure a home mortgage loan of a single-family house, and the home must be a primary dwelling. The basis of the law is that a PMI coverage should be terminated when the principal balance of the mortgage reaches 78% of the property’s value that was used to secure the mortgage. It implies that when a homeowner’s equity in the mortgaged property increases substantially, by payment of the principal’s installment, cancellation is required.

The Homeowners Protection Act also stipulates that the borrower reserves the right to terminate the PMI when the mortgage’s principal balance reduces to 80% of the property’s original value. The lender is also obliged to return the borrower’s unearned premiums upon cancellation.

Exceptions to the Homeowners Protection Act

The decision to cancel the private insurance coverage applies solely to home mortgages signed on or after July 29, 1999, one year after the law’s adoption. The following cases do not warrant the application of the Act:

  • PMI paid for by the lender instead of the mortgagor.
  • Certain high-risk mortgage loans, where the borrower is not currently making payments in line with the contract terms.

The Homeowners Protection Act also imposes additional requirements for the right to cancellation. It establishes a requirement for terminating the PMI, which takes effect when the borrower’s equity in the home becomes substantial.

The midpoint in the amortization period is the point at which the cancellation occurs if the borrower adheres to the terms of the mortgage to make current payments. At such a point, the property’s equity interest of the borrower would usually exceed 50%.

Additional Requirements

The Homeowners Protection Act also sets forth the appropriate time when the lender must inform mortgagors of their cancellation and termination rights. Lenders are civilly liable to borrowers if they contravene any of the law’s provisions. Typically, the resulting damages and statutory damages due to its violation is subject to a fine not exceeding $2,000.

The HPA supersedes inconsistent state policies on mortgage transactions signed after it took effect. Since its adoption, the legislation has not faced any apparent enforcement and compliance challenges, and it has been fulfilling its mandate of terminating or canceling PMI in mortgage arrangements backed by PMI when LTVs have reached zero risk.

Additional Resources

CFI offers the Commercial Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™ certification program for those looking to take their careers to the next level. To keep learning and developing your knowledge base, please explore the additional relevant resources below:

0 search results for ‘