The three financial statements are all linked and dependent on each other. In financial modeling, your first job is to link all three statements together in Excel, so it’s critical to understand how they’re connected. This is also a common question for investment banking interviews, FP&A interviews, and equity research interviews.
In this tutorial we will break it down for you, although we assume you already have a basic understanding of accounting fundamentals and know how to read financial statements.
The income statement is not prepared on a cash basis – that means accounting principles such as revenue recognition, matching, and accruals can make the income statement very different from the cash flow of the business. If a company prepared its income statement entirely on a cash basis (i.e. no accounts receivable, nothing capitalized, etc.) it would have no balance sheet, other than shareholders’ equity and cash.
It’s the creation of the balance sheet through accounting principles that leads to the rise of the cash flow statement, and the three of them are intricately linked.
Net income from the bottom of the income statement links to the balance sheet and cash flow statement. On the balance sheet, it feeds into retained earnings and on the cash flow statement it is the starting point for the cash from operations section.
Depreciation and other capitalized expenses on the income statement need to be added back to net income to calculate the cash flow from operations. Depreciation flows out of the balance sheet from PP&E onto the income statement as an expense, and then gets added back in the cash flow statement.
Changes in current assets and current liabilities on the balance sheet are related to expenses on the income statement, but need to be adjusted on the cash flow statement to reflect the actual amount of cash received or spent by the business.
Financing events like issuing debt affect all three statements in the following way: the interest expense appears on the income statement, the principle amount of debt owed sits on the balance sheet, and the change in principle amount owed is reflected on the cash from financing section of the cash flow statement.
Once all of the above items are linked up properly, the sum of cash from operation, cash from investing, and cash from financing are added to the prior period closing cash balance, and the result becomes the current period closing cash balance on the balance sheet.
If you get a question along the lines of, “how are the financial statements linked together?” in an interview you shouldn’t go into as much detail as above, but really hit the main points, which are:
If you’re building a financial model in Excel it’s critical to be able to quickly link the three statements. In order to do this, there are a few basic steps to follow:
The model essentially inverts, where the historical period is hardcodes for the statements and calculations for the drivers, then the forecast is hardcodes for the drivers and calculations for the financial statements.
Check out our step by step course to learn how to build a financial model in Excel.
Hopefully this has been a helpful guide on how the financial statements are linked together. To keep learning more please check out these relevant resources: