Auditor’s Report

The official opinion of an external or internal auditor regarding a company's financial statements

What is an Auditor’s Report?

In Auditor’s Report is an official opinion issued by an external or internal auditor as to the quality and accuracy of the financial statements prepared by a company.  The report is a primary source of communication between the auditor and users of financial statements. The users include equity holders, lenders, creditors, and any other potential investors in the company.

The relationship between all relevant parties is best depicted in a diagram:

 

Auditor's Report Diagram

 

 

The auditor provides auditing services to the client, the client provides the financial statements to the users, and the auditor provides the auditor’s report to the users.

 

Components of an Auditor’s Report

  1. Title
  2. Report’s Addressees
  3. Opinion paragraph
  4. Basis for opinion
  5. Key audit matters that are relevant to the client
  6. Responsibilities of the management and those with governance for the financial statements
  7. The auditor’s responsibilities
  8. Signature of the firm and the engagement partner
  9. Date

Some of the components listed above are new and will be implemented starting in December 2018. One of the changes is that the name of the partner involved in the engagement must be printed and signed on the auditor’s report. This measure was implemented so that auditors cannot hide behind the name of the firm and now take on more responsibility by putting their name out in public. Another new component is the key audit matter section of the report. Before, the auditor’s report was more generic and could be used for different companies. However, the new report requires specific details about the company so that it is more tailored to that company.

 

Different Types of Auditor’s Reports

The most standard form of the auditor’s report where everything is presented fairly in all material respects is called the unqualified or clean auditor’s report. Any changes made to this report are called reservations. There are two general reservations: GAAP departures and scope limitations.

GAAP departure issues refer to situations where the financial statements are not free from material misstatement. For example, there are errors in the financial statements that management is unwilling to alter, which violate GAAP.

Scope limitations, on the other hand, refer to situations in which the auditor is unable to obtain audit evidence to conclude that the financial statements are free from material misstatements. This means that the auditor is not able to obtain what they need due to either outside events or management will not permit. The form of the auditor’s report also differs in terms of its pervasiveness. Pervasive refers to the idea that the impact is widespread and affects many different accounts on the financial statements.

 

Auditor's Report Information

 

The Idea of Materiality in Audit Reports

One section of the auditor’s report states that “accompanying financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the company as at XXX…” It is important to notice that the financial statements are presented fairly and NOT accurately or precisely. This means that there are areas where professional judgment and policy choices were made and differences could exist between different auditors. Furthermore, “in all material respects” is also important. Materiality is the idea that certain changes are significant enough to change the investment decisions of investors and potential investors. This means that issues that only deal with a small portion, i.e. 1% of net income, is not material. Auditors are primarily concerned with material misstatements, which include omissions or other errors that individually or in its whole influence the economic decisions of its users. Materiality is pivotal in the course of an audit and affects what type of report the auditor will issue.

 

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