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Revenue

The value of all sales of goods and services recognized by a company in a period

What is Revenue?

Revenue is the value of all sales of goods and services recognized by a company in a period. Revenue (also revered to as Sales, Turnover, or Income) forms the beginning of a company’s Income Statement and often considered the “Top Line” of a business. Expenses are deducted from a company’s revenue to arrive at its Profit or Net Income.

 

Revenue diagram

 

Revenue Recognition Principle

According to the revenue recognition principle in accounting, revenue is recorded when the benefits and risks of ownership have transferred from buyer to seller, or when the delivery of services has been completed.

Notice that this definition doesn’t include anything about payment for goods/service actually being received. This is because companies often sell their products on credit to customers, meaning that they won’t receive payment until later.

When goods or services are sold on credit, they are recorded as revenue, but since cash payment is not received yet, the value is also recorded on the balance sheet as accounts receivable.

When cash payment is finally received later, there is no additional income recorded, but the cash balance goes up, and accounts receivable goes down.

To learn more, explore CFI’s free Accounting Fundamentals Course.

 

Revenue Example

Below is an example of Amazon’s 2017 income statement. Let’s take a closer look to understand how revenue works for a very large public company.

Amazon refers to its revenue as “sales,” which is equally as common as a term. It reports sales in two categories, product and service, which then combine to form total net sales.

 

Revenue Example - Amazon
Source: amazon.com

 

In 2017, Amazon recorded $118.6 billion of product sales and $59.3 billion of service sales, for a grand total of $178.9 billion. The figure forms the top line of the income statement.

Beneath that are all operating expenses, which are deducted to arrive at Operating Income, also sometimes referred to as Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT).

Finally, interest and taxes are deducted to reach the bottom line of the income statement, $3.0 billion of net income.

 

Revenue Formula

The revenue formula may be simple or complicated, depending on the business. For product sales, it is calculated by taking the average price at which goods are sold and multiplying it by the total number of products sold. For service companies, it is calculated as the value of all service contracts, or by the number of customers multiplied by the average price of services.

Revenue = No. of Units Sold x Average Price

or

Revenue = No. of Customers x Average Price of Services

 

The formulas above can be significantly expanded to include more detail. For example, many companies will model their revenue forecast all the way down to the individual product level or individual customer level.

 

Revenue Forecast

Below is an example of a company’s forecast based on many drivers, including:

  • Website traffic
  • Conversion rates
  • Product prices
  • Volume of different product
  • Discounts
  • Return and refunds

 

E-commerce Financial Model with Revenue

 

As you can see in the example above, there is much more that can be included in a forecast other than just No. of Units x Average Price.

CFI’s e-Commerce Financial Modeling Course provides a detailed breakdown of how to build this type of model, which is extremely important for forecasting and business valuation.

 

Revenue on the Income Statement (and other financials)

Sales are the lifeblood of a company, as it’s what allows it to pay its employees, purchase inventory, pay suppliers, invest in research and development, build new property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), and be self-sustaining.

If a company doesn’t have sufficient revenue to cover the above items, it will need to use an existing cash balance on its balance sheet. The cash can come from financing, meaning that the company borrowed the money (in the case of debt), or raised it (in the case of equity).

In order to perform a comprehensive analysis of a business, it’s important to know how the 3 financial statements are linked and see how a company either uses its sales to fund to the business or must turn to financing alternatives to fund the business.

To learn more, watch CFI’s free webinar on how to link the 3 financial statements in Excel.

 

Revenue in Different Sectors

Below, we will explore what the concept of revenue means in different sectors. As you will see, it can be composed of many different things and varies widely in terms of what the most common examples are, by sector.

 

Personal finance:

  • Salaries
  • Bonuses
  • Hourly wages
  • Dividends
  • Interest
  • Rental income

 

Public finance:

  • Income tax
  • Corporate tax
  • Sales tax
  • Duties and tariffs

 

Corporate finance:

  • Sale of goods
  • Sales of services
  • Dividends
  • Interest

 

Non-profits:

  • Membership Dues
  • Fundraising
  • Sponsorships
  • Product/service sales

 

The three main areas that typically make up the finance industry are public finance, personal finance, and corporate finance. And we demonstrated above, the various sources of income in each type can be quite different. While the above lists are not exhaustive, they do provide a general sense of the most common types of income you’ll encounter.

 

Additional Resources

Thank you for reading this guide to better understand what revenue is, how companies generate it, and why it matters. CFI’s mission is to help you advance your career, and with that goal in mind, these additional resources will be a big help:

  • EBIT Guide
  • Financial Forecasting
  • Net Income
  • Public Finance

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