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Debt Financing

When a company raises money by selling debt instruments, most commonly in the form of bank loans or bonds

What is Debt Financing?

Debt financing occurs when a company raises money by selling debt instruments, most commonly in the form of bank loans or bonds. Such a type of financing is often referred to as financial leverage.

 

Debt Financing

 

As a result of taking on additional debt, the company makes the promise to repay the loan and incurs the cost of interest. It is then able to use the borrowed money to pay for large capital expenditures or fund its working capital. In general, well-established businesses that demonstrate constant sales, solid collateral, and are profitable will rely on debt financing.

On the other hand, newly launched businesses that face uncertainty in the future or businesses with high profitability, but lower credit ratings will more likely rely on equity financing.

 

Summary

  • Debt financing is also referred to as financial leverage.
  • The cost of debt is the interest charged.
  • Debt financing preserves company ownership, and the interest paid is tax-deductible.

 

Debt Financing Options

 

1. Bank loan

A common form of debt financing is a bank loan. Banks will often assess the individual financial situation of each company and offer loan sizes and interest rates accordingly.

 

2. Bond issues

Another form of debt financing is bond issues. A traditional bond certificate includes a principal value, a term by which repayment must be completed, and an interest rate. Individuals or entities that purchase the bond then become creditors by loaning money to the business.

 

3. Family and credit card loans

Other means of debt financing also include taking loans from family and friends and borrowing through a credit card. They are common with start-ups and small businesses.

 

Debt Financing Over the Short-Term

Businesses use short-term debt financing to fund their working capital for day-to-day operations. It can include paying wages, buying inventory, or costs incurred for supplies and maintenance. The scheduled repayment for the loans is usually within a year.

A common type of short-term financing is a line of credit, which is secured with collateral. It is typically used with businesses struggling to keep a positive cash flow (expenses are higher than current revenues), such as start-ups.

 

Debt Financing Over the Long-Term

Businesses seek long-term debt financing to purchase assets, such as buildings, equipment, and machinery. The assets that will be purchased are usually also used to secure the loan as collateral. The scheduled repayment for the loans is usually up to 10 years, with fixed interest rates and predictable monthly payments.

 

Advantages of Debt Financing

 

1. Preserve company ownership

The main reason that companies choose to finance through debt rather than equity is to preserve company ownership. In equity financing, such as selling common and preferred shares, the investor retains an equity position in the business. The investor then gains shareholder voting rights, and business owners dilute their ownership.

Debt capital is provided by a lender, who is only entitled to their repayment of capital plus interest. Hence, business owners are able to retain maximum ownership of their company and end obligations to the lender once the debt is paid off.

 

2. Tax-deductible interest payments

Another benefit of debt financing is that the interest paid is tax-deductible. it decreases the company’s tax obligations. Furthermore, the principal payment and interest expense are a fixed and known amount assuming the loan is paid back at a constant rate. It allows for accurate forecasting, which makes budgeting and financial planning easier.

 

Disadvantages of Debt Financing

 

1. The need for regular income

The repayment of debt can become a struggle for some business owners. They need to ensure the business generates enough income to pay for regular installments of principal and interest.

Many lending institutions also require assets of the business to be posted as collateral for the loan, which can be seized if the business is unable to make certain payments.

 

2. Adverse impact on credit ratings

If borrowers lack a solid plan to pay back their debt, they face the consequences. Late or skipped payments will negatively affect their credit ratings, making it more difficult to borrow money in the future.

 

3. Potential bankruptcy

Agreeing to provide collateral to the lender puts their business assets at risk, and sometimes even their personal assets. Above all, they risk potential bankruptcy. If the business should fail, the debt must still be repaid.

 

Additional Resources

CFI is the official provider of the Certified Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™ certification program, designed to transform anyone into a world-class financial analyst.

In order to help you become a world-class financial analyst and advance your career to your fullest potential, these additional resources will be very helpful:

  • Leverage Ratios
  • Debt Restructuring
  • Quality of Collateral
  • Debt vs Equity Financing

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