What is Going Concern?
The going concern principle believes that any organization will continue to run the business for a foreseeable future. The principle believes that every decision in the company is taken with the same objective of running the business rather than liquidating the same.
Breaking Down Going Concern
Going concern is one of the very fundamental principles of accounting that assumes that the entity will continue to remain in the business for a foreseeable future. Conversely, it also means that the entity does not plan or expect to be forced to liquidate its assets. Under the accounting principle, it defers its revenue and expense according to other provisions of accounting. If the going concern assumption does not hold true, then it will not be possible to record prepay or accrue expenses as such.
The concept of going concern is relevant not only from an income statement but also from a balance sheet perspective. All the assets are depreciated and amortized with the same business idea that the businesses will continue to operate.
Conditions for Going Concern
The concept is not clearly defined anywhere in the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), which gives a considerable amount of interpretation regarding when an entity should report it. However, Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS) requires an auditor to verify an entity’s ability to continue as going concern.
Without any significant information to the contrary, it is always assumed that the entity would be able to meet all its obligation without significant debt restructuring and would be a going concern entity.
Once the auditor examines a company’s financial statements to see if the operating conditions of the entity are suitable for the long-term continuity of the business, the auditor will issue a certificate accordingly. Some of the conditions that create substantial doubts on the principles of going concern are default on loans, lawsuits, company plans to declare itself bankrupt, continued losses year on year, etc.
In case the auditor decides to qualify its audit report, it may also raise the issue whether the assets are already impaired, which may highlight the need to write down the value of the assets from their carrying value to liquidation value. However, the company can choose to justify and make the auditor believe the situation is temporary. It can also get a third-party guarantee to mitigate existing risks.
The valuation of an entity, assuming it’s on a going concern basis, will be higher as it offers the potential to earn higher profits in the future than on liquidation value.
Going Concern vs. Liquidation Value
The value of a going concern is basically the ability of the business to earn future profits. An analyst values the business after looking at the recent trend of the business, and the company’s potential to earn profits. A going concern will be valued according to operational efficiency, market share, the ability to influence the market, technology advantages, and so on. It may be valued using the discounted cash flow (DCF) method with the assumption the economic benefit the company will enjoy.
The valuation of a company is important from the shareholders’ and investors’ perspective. In general, all companies are run with such an assumption and hence, projections and more importantly, business plans are made considering what should be the next action plan.
Liquidation value, on the other hand, is a situation where the company becomes insolvent and is unable to pay its bills when it becomes due. An insolvent company may choose to sell its asset one by one or all its assets together. The value received from the sale is the asset’s market value less sale expenses to undergo the sale. The liquidation value is very important for creditors, who would be paid out of this money.
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