PP&E (Property, Plant and Equipment)
Fixed, tangible assets
Fixed, tangible assets
Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E) is a non-current, tangible capital asset on the balance sheet of a business used to generate revenues and profits. PP&E plays a key part in the financial planning and analysis of a company’s operations and future expenditures, especially with regards to capital expenditures.
The PP&E account is often denoted as net of accumulated depreciation. This means that, if a company does not purchase new equipment (capital expenditures is zero), Net PP&E should slowly decrease in value every period due to depreciation. This can be better determined by a depreciation schedule.
PP&E is a tangible fixed-asset account and is generally very illiquid. A company can sell its equipment, but not as easily as its inventory. The value of PP&E between companies will vary with the operations. For example, a construction company will generally have a higher property, plant and equipment balance than an accounting firm.
Property, plant, and equipment will include any of a company’s long-term, fixed assets. PP&E assets are tangible, identifiable, physical and expected to generate an economic return for the company for more than one year, or one operating cycle (whichever is longer). The account can include machinery, equipment, vehicles, buildings, land, office space, office equipment, and furnishings, among others. Note that, of all these asset classes, land is generally one of the only assets that does not depreciate over time.
If a company produces machinery (for sale), that machinery does not classify as property, plant, and equipment. The machinery used to produce the machinery for sales is PP&E, but the machinery for sale will be classified as inventory. The same goes for real estate companies that hold building and land under their assets. Their office buildings and land are PP&E, but the apartments they sell are inventory.
Net PP&E = Gross PP&E + Capital Expenditures – Accumulated Depreciation
In May 2017, Factory Corp. owned machinery with a gross value of $5,000,000. Accumulated depreciation for the same machinery was at $2,100,000. Due to the wear and tear of the machinery, the company decided to purchase another $1,000,000 in new equipment. For this period, the depreciation expense for all old and new equipment is $150,000.
Thus, the ending balance is $3,750,000. This is found by taking $5,000,000 + $1,000,000 – $2,100,000 – $150,000.
As the above formula shows, Capital Expenditures (often referred to a CapEx for short) are what add to the net property, plant and equipment balance on the balance sheet. When the company spends money investing in either (1) updating and maintaining existing equipment, or (2) purchasing new additional equipment, this adds to the total balance on the balance sheet.
PP&E should be recognized by a company only if:
The initial costs of a PP&E item may include:
The nature of PP&E assets is that some of these assets need to be regularly fixed or replaced to prevent equipment failures or to adopt a more sophisticated technology. For example, it is normal for companies to repair or replace old factories or automobiles with new assets when necessary. The general rule in accounting for repairs and replacements is that repairs and maintenance work are expensed while replacements of assets are capitalized. Repairs are easy to record; it is simply a debit to repair or maintenance expense and a credit to cash. Replacements, however, are a bit more complicated. For replacements, the old cost of the asset is derecognized from the company’s books and the new cost of the replacement is recorded/recognized.
The other major component of the PP&E formula above is depreciation and amortization. Depreciation reduces the value of property, plant, and equipment on the balance sheet as the value of assets are lowered over time due to wear and tear and the reduction of their useful life. The depreciation expense is used to reduce the value of the net balance and it flows to the income statement as an expense.
The easiest way to keep track of fixed capital assets is with a schedule, such as the one shown below. This is the type of analysis a financial analyst would prepare and maintain for a company in order to prepare complete financial statements or build a financial model in Excel.
Download the PP&E Schedule Template to use it on your own! Enter all assumptions in the blue font cells.
Download the PP&E Schedule Template to use it on your own! Assumptions are blue and formulas are black.
As shown above, the schedule starts with a PP&E opening balance, which is the beginning value of the assets. From there, any additional purhchases of new assets or improvements to existing one are added as capital expenditures. Below that, depreciation expense is deducted (note: deprecation can be calculated many different ways depending on the type of depreciation method used). Finally, by taking the opening balance, adding capex and deducting depreciation we arrive at the closing balance.
The closing balance is what goes on the balance sheet at the end of each period. Each subsequent period’s opening balance is equal to the prior period’s closing balance, which is how the schedule pulls forward, in a corkscrew-like manner. An exercise such as this is very common in financial modeling and valuation analysis.
We hope this has been a helpful guide to understanding property, plant, and equipment on the balance sheet. CFI is the official global provider of the Finacial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA) certification, a leading credential for financial analysts. To continue learning and advancing your career, we highly recommend these additional resources below:
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