The Management Discussions and Analysis (MD&A) is a section of the annual report or SEC filing 10-K that provides an overview of how the company performed in the prior period, its current financial condition, and management’s future projections. It helps potential investors understand the company’s financial fundamentals and management’s thinking, beliefs, and performance. MD&A is a required disclosure for publicly traded companies that fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Typically, the MD&A, as part of form 10-K, attempts to give a balanced view of the company through the eyes of the company’s management team. The section covers several topics of interest.
The management must identify any known trends, events, commitments, demands, or uncertainties that are likely to result in material changes in liquidity or capital resources. The section should also discuss the company’s material commitments for capital expenditures and any anticipated sources of funds to meet such commitments. For example, the management should explain the current capital structure and any plans to offer additional bonds or stocks.
Results of Operations
When discussing the results of operations, the management must focus on unusual events or transactions and any significant economic changes that have affected income from continuing operations. They must explain any known trends or uncertainties that have had or that they expect to have a favorable or unfavorable impact on the net revenues from operations.
In case the company experienced a significant rise in sales or revenues compared to previous periods, they must explain the degree to which the increase is attributable to a price increase, introduction of a new product or service, or to some other factor(s).
Critical Accounting Estimates
The SEC encourages companies to give a full explanation of their accounting policies in the MD&A. This helps investors to understand the effects of the accounting policies, the judgments made when applying the policies, and the likelihood of a material difference in the reported results if the company applied different assumptions.
For example, a company may explain its adherence to FIFO or LIFO inventory accounting. In the past, SEC staff have acknowledged that the quality of disclosure of critical accounting policies by public companies has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, public companies should make full disclosures of their critical accounting policies in the MD&A to help investors understand the company’s performance.
Thank you for reading CFI’s guide to the MD&A. To learn more and advance your financial knowledge and career, see the following free CFI resources:
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