What is Vehicle to Everything (V2X)?
Vehicle to Everything (V2X) is a vehicular communication system that supports the transfer of information from a vehicle to moving parts of the traffic system that may affect the vehicle. The main purpose of V2X technology is to improve road safety, energy savings, and traffic efficiency on the roads.
The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that the implementation of V2X technology would result in a reduction of traffic accidents across the United States.
- V2X is a communication system that allows vehicles to communicate with other vehicles and infrastructure around them.
- The main components of Vehicle to Everything (V2X) include vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication systems.
- The main benefits of V2X systems include increased road safety, fuel savings, traffic efficiency, and better road management.
How Vehicle to Everything (V2X) Works
In a V2X communication system, the information travels from the vehicle sensors and other sources through high-bandwidth, high-reliability links, allowing it to communicate with other cars, infrastructure such as parking spaces and traffic lights, and smartphone-tossing pedestrians.
By sharing information, such as speed, with other entities around the vehicle, the technology improves the driver’s awareness of potential dangers and helps reduce the severity of injuries, road accident fatalities, and collision with other vehicles.
The technology also enhances traffic efficiency by warning drivers of upcoming traffic, suggesting alternative routes to avoid traffic and identifying available parking spaces.
Components of V2X Technology
The key components of V2X technology include V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) and V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure). V2V allows vehicles to communicate with other vehicles on the road, while V2I allows vehicles to communicate with external entities, such as traffic lights, parking spaces, cyclists, and pedestrians. The technologies help improve road safety, reduce fuel consumption, and enhance the experience between drivers and other road users, such as cyclists and pedestrians.
When V2X systems are integrated into traditional vehicles, drivers can receive important information about the weather patterns, nearby accidents, road conditions, road works warning, emergency vehicle approaching, and activities of other drivers using the same road.
Autonomous vehicles equipped with V2X systems may provide more information to the existing navigation system of the vehicle. The systems also make it possible for autonomous vehicles to scan the surrounding environment and make immediate decisions based on the information received.
Development of V2X Technology
Although the V2X market is still in its early stages, most manufacturers have started incorporating the technology, and vehicles are increasingly becoming connected to other vehicles and infrastructure around them. Vehicles are also becoming intelligent, and they are equipped with systems that require less human involvement. As a result, the users benefit from safer, greener journeys with reduced carbon emissions, thanks to the adaptive cruise control and sensors.
However, the full benefits of V2X systems will take time to be realized because, for a vehicle to communicate with an entity, that entity must be equipped with V2X technology. Most entities like parking spaces, traffic lights, and traditional vehicles do not have the V2X systems, which means that they cannot communicate with the vehicles already using the system.
As the V2X market expands, vehicles will be able to communicate with other vehicles, traffic systems, and other road users like cyclists equipped with V2X systems.
Vehicle to Everything Standards Overview
The following are the key V2X competing standards:
The IEEE 802.11p is the original V2X standard, and it uses WLAN technology. It links vehicles-to-vehicles (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) when two V2X senders get close to each other’s range. The 802.11p standard does not require any communication device for it to work, and such a capability makes it ideal in less-developed areas.
The IEEE 802.11p standard exceeds the line of sight sensors, such as radar and camera, and it delivers information such as toll payments and collision warnings. The key characteristics of 802.11p include low latency, short-range (under 1 km.), and it runs in the unlicensed 5.9GHz band.
In addition, the standard delivers performance without being affected by weather conditions, such as fog, rain, or snow, and the technology can scan the surrounding environment even in adverse weather.
The Cellular V2X (C-V2X) is an alternative to 802.11p and the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA) and Qualcomm support the use of the technology. It uses LTE as the underlying technology, and C-V2X functionalities are based on the technology.
One of the key advantages of Cellular V2X is that it includes operational modes that users can choose from. The first mode involves direct communication between vehicles over the PC5 interface. PC5 is the reference point where the user equipment directly communicates with other equipment over the channel.
Cellular V2X is designed for active safety warnings such as road hazard warnings, and other situations involving V2V and V2I. Using C-V2X systems will also protect other road users – such as cyclists and pedestrians – by getting the PC5 interface integrated into smartphones. It will help detect pedestrians and cyclists using the same road to prevent accidents and injuries.
Apart from direct communication over the PC5 interface, cellular V2X allows the device to use vehicle-to-network (V2N) communication.
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